Gran Turismo 5: Nurburgring Nordschleife Speed Guide

       Nurburgring Nordschleife Speed Guide - Gran Turismo 5
By Mike Kimball
Version 2.1, October 12, 2011

                                                                              #

########
CONTENTS
########

Copyright Notice
Contact The Author
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Version Updates

Unlocking the Nordschleife
The Car
Game Equipment
  G25 Pedal Mod (for use with DFP/DF GT wheel)
  New PS3 System
Shoes - On or Off?
Left-Foot Braking
Driving Tips That Have Helped Me Go Faster

Nordschleife - Step by Step
  (Includes all corner names and time splits)
Looking Forward

Addendum 1 - AMG Academy
Addendum 2 - Red Bull X2010 Challenge
Addendum 3 - game progress
Addendum 4 - battling the AI
Addendum 5 - suggested GT improvements
Addendum 6 - lap milestones
Addendum 7 - real-life lap records
How many corners are there?

================
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
================

Copyright 2011 Mike Kimball
Intended for private, personal, and educational usage only.
Originally written to be displayed on www.gamefaqs.com.

Please notify me if you've posted it somewhere else.

All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by
their respective trademark and copyright holders.

==================
Contact The Author
==================

I welcome email from fellow 'Ring fans anytime.  Please mention this
guide in the subject.  And extra points if you can name all of the
uncited movie references I threw in here.

Send to bloodmetalcontent at yahoo dot com.

I'm also on YouTube - http://www.youtube.com/user/formulakimball


========
Foreword
========

"For a quick lap at the Nurburgring, you've probably experienced more in
seven minutes and six or seven seconds than most people have experienced
in all their lives in the way of fear, in the way of tension, in the way 
of animosity towards machinery and to a racetrack."
--Jackie Stewart, 1973

First of all, the obligatory disclaimer: Just as the game may differ from
the real life cars and tracks represented therein, so may the information
in this guide differ from your time attack in your real car in real life.
It's hard to overstate the fact that there is a wide gulf between what
you can do in a game versus what may happen if you go to the track for
real.  Try to remember that this track can easily rearrange your car
(or, your internal organs) in spectacular fashion if you're not careful.

I think the fact that in GT5 you must unlock the Nordschleife, by passing
the first two AMG Academy levels, shows how serious they are about fostering
Nordschleife safety.  I guess a few too many tourists thought they were as
fast as Michael Schumacher after a handful of GT4 laps, and then pushed
too hard and cracked up their cars (or skulls).  Some elements of the game
(tires, grip, power, durability, braking) are inevitably idealized, and
even PDI's masterful rendering of the track naturally doesn't reach the
depth of detail in the real one (even though they've made a massive step
forward with GT5's version).  Think of your first laps in GT5 - you were
probably far slower at first than in GT4 and maybe still had some
off-road excursions...

My advice is to remember that whatever car you drive on the real
Nordschleife will probably have nowhere near the capabilities of 80%
of the cars available in GT5.  So, to prep for a real-life visit, do
at least 50-100 laps, and include laps with crappy tires on (comfort
soft or less), and laps in a fast car that has no aero, or aero that
only works when all four wheels are on flat ground (Chaparral 2J),
so that you find out where all the main bumps are, which will tend
to lead you astray of the racing line or disrupt your throttle delivery.
Then do a few more in the AMG Academy to remind you that you won't
often have the track to yourself (and therefore the racing line you
want), or a nice, dry grip level.

By the time I visited the Nurburgring in late August 2007 I had turned
600 laps in GT4 and watched many different dvds of in-car footage.
This familiarity with the track layout deepened the experience for me - the
thrill is greatly increased when corners no longer all look the same and you
know what is coming up next.  Even with quite a lot of traffic we went BTG
in 8'20 (traffic-corrected, our average speed was over 90mph, and I'm fairly
certain we were going about 170 in Kesselchen).  That Zakspeed Viper was
truly amazing.

In 2008 I spent 9 days at the Bertil Roos road racing school, including
visits to VIR, NJ Motorsports, and Pocono North.  The great thing about
actual racing is how much sooner you sense the car reacting to your inputs -
especially moments where the weight transfer might get you in trouble -
but the simulator practice does mean your brain already has some sense of
what to do in an unsteady moment, which you also perceive earlier.  Still,
when you've only driven street cars and racing simulators, driving a Formula
2000 car on a real race circuit is a revelation.  As Lewis Black has joked,
"Oh, so this is what cars are *supposed* to do."

This guide is geared for those who seek suggestions to improve their time in
GT5, and who have, at the minimum, memorized the track.  I'm not the
fastest driver in the world but I do hope this guide can inspire or help you
in some way, as it also helps me continue to evolve...

================
Acknowledgements
================

As I reach version 2.0 of this guide, I want to thank all of the people
reading this, it's amazing to see so many hits on this page. 

I would like to acknowledge some sources which have offered specific
inspiration for this guide: justgofaster.com, Nurburgring for Dummies by
Christopher Heiser, and of course Ben Lovejoy's awesome guide (including the
corner names and the very informative translations/history).  As for other
acknowledgements, I must mention dvds from FIA Formula 1 2000-2008, Best
Motoring International vols. 9-16 and Tsuchiya’s Drift Bible, and Skip Barber's
Going Faster.  Also, much thanks for the In Car 956 dvd featuring Derek Bell
and his commentary of a lap at Nurburgring, and the Nissan GT-R dvd featuring
fantastic laps from 'ringmeister Dirk Schoysman.  And also, the book
"Winning, a Racing Driver's Guide", by George A. Anderson, with guest authors
Carroll Smith and Bertil Roos among others.  I've also been reading a lot
of cracked.com lately, so I hope to make subtle tweaks to this guide that
will make it easier and more interesting to read.

Special thanks to all who made it possible for me to visit the Nurburgring
in person at last - our bus driver Max first and foremost for setting it all
up, our tour manager Oise for adding the Nurburgring day to the schedule, my
former band and TM (John, Sean, Trey, and Brian V), and all at Zakspeed
for an amazing high-speed experience.

And finally, all at Bertil Roos Racing School. No amount of time in a simulator
is as valuable as even one day at a real track, and what I learned from them
has made a huge difference.


===============
Version Updates
===============

Version 2.1
- Congratulations Seb Vettel and Red Bull on the back-to-back F1 WDC wins!
- Vettel Championship X2010 info added
- GT5 2.0 is here!  Updated suggested GT improvements addendum, AI sections
- Usual small corrections and additions here and there...

Version 2.0
- Thanks for the 50,000+ hits reached during v1.8; now 57,000...
- Formula Gran Turismo: New video uploaded - 4'43.165, small setup tweak
- Game Equipment: New PS3 System, ghost replays not exported but available
- More on the AI, since they still haven't fixed it
- New addendum on my suggested game improvements
- Tweaks here and there on the cars, lap times, guide, etc

Version 1.9
- New addendum about the AI (PDI - This Is ESPECIALLY For You ;)
- Updated Ferrari F2007 setup and time
- Tweaks to game equipment, addendum times, car info, lap milestones

Version 1.8
- A few corrections (there always is one thing I missed)
- B-Spec info (frivolous reporting on what everyone already knows)
- I made friends with the F2007, it's faster than the FGT (setup included)
- Touring car info (setup included)

Version 1.7
- Revised corner count, some corner directions
- Added setup info, car info
- Small updates to game progress
- Updates to AMG Academy info
- New lap times

Version 1.6
- Updates to the lap guide, some changes to gearing
- Tweaks to the car info
- New fast time and setup tweaks
- New video uploaded: 4'44.599

Version 1.5
- Small updates to Red Bull X1 Challenge info (all golds)
- Updates to the game progress including 24h Nurburgring info
- Car info (Ferrari F2007)
- A-Spec: Gold Standard on February 19, 2011
- New Formula Gran Turismo info (and a video)

Version 1.4
- At last: the Formula Gran Turismo
- Updated Red Bull X1 Challenge info
- Updated game progress
- Usual small updates to guide, car info
- New lap times

Version 1.3
- Added Red Bull X1 Challenge info
- Small updates to the lap guide
- New lap times

version 1.2
- Updated AMG Academy info (includes Expert tier)
- Addendum - game progress
- 16:9 vs 4:3 (I'm a goof)
- More adjustments and corrections
- New lap times
- Considering for next version: 6-speed gearing for lap guide

Version 1.1
- Added AMG Academy info
- Corrections (of course, first version always has a few)
- Lap times added

Version 1.0
- This guide adapted from my guide for GT4, version 2.5.


==========================
Unlocking the Nordschleife
==========================

A FAQ from new GT5 players is "where is the Nordschleife?"

You have to unlock it by completing the first two tiers of the
AMG Academy (in the Special challenges) with at least bronze times.
Note, this also involves some leveling up.  After you pass the
Beginner and Intermediate AMG levels, the Nordschleife will be
available for Practice and in Arcade mode.  More on this follows
in the section Addendum 1 - AMG Academy.


=======
The Car
=======

Formula Gran Turismo
--------------------
The Formula Gran Turismo is still one of my favorite cars; I collect
all of them. If you still need one, just look in the online lot -
take advantage of the half credits and zero mileage. It appears in
the normal used lot also, but a bit infrequently and rarely in a
timely fashion.

The car now reaches over 235mph even with full downforce, so the FGT
is faster on straights than in GT4, but has conspicuously less aero
to help in corners (235mph = Monza wings).  70/90 instead of
75/105 doesn't sound like much, but trust me, you will feel the
difference.  (The other F1 cars all have more than double that,
in fact their rear wing doesn't even go as low as the
FGT's maximum.)

Further, I suspect they've also more accurately modeled the tire
specs (in the sense that F1 uses 13" wheels and high-profile tires)
meaning that even when you set the suspension as stiff as it goes,
the car still floats around and it reacts relatively slowly to
your inputs.  My understanding is that if they put better tires on
the car, it would simply be too much performance and drivers would
black out under braking.  So instead, we have to live with tire
deflection and its delayed, snappy handling characteristics.

Other than that, the car is essentially the same - but when combining
low aero and squishy tires with an engine producing over 930hp, the
experience of driving it at the limit is daunting.  The car is quite
agile even without a lot of aero, but also very unstable. Every aspect
of cornering is more difficult, and the car is extremely sensitive to
throttle inputs, steering, and braking, which can easily become
jumbled and get the car all crossed up.  It requires a completely
different driving style, something like a normal car in the wet -
early and careful inputs. Many dramatic maneuvers require little
more than a tiny lift.  

One last thing, as you may experience an extreme spectrum of emotions
while doing time attacks in this car - it's important to keep some
perspective when things aren't going too well.  It's not just the
car, which handles well enough on any other circuit - it's the car
plus the track that is a killer.  The reality is that F1 stopped
racing the Nordschleife after 1976, and sports prototypes also after
1983, and neither has really been engineered with the Nordschleife in
mind since then.  The speeds you can achieve in modern race cars are
far above speeds that were ever intended to be reached on a bumpy,
tight, ridiculously dangerous and complicated circuit like the
Nordschleife.  That's a big reason Bellof's record of 6'11 remains
untouched even after nearly 30 years of advancing technology.  But
that's no reason to stop us in our glorious GT5 world, of course.

SETUP SPECS
-----------
[singing] B... A... L... A... N... C... E... Balance.

Some advice from "Winning" seems correct - that once the setup is in the
ballpark, it's rare that further tweaks themselves will result in a faster
lap time. However, it might make the car easier to drive or merely suit the
driver's style better, which can give enough confidence to improve.  Two to
tango, as it were.

Most setup changes come with certain negative side effects that you must
recognize and learn to live with.  I'm continually learning the various
ways seemingly harmless tweaks can result in mysterious instances of
erratic behavior - remember, at the Nurburgring the track surface changes
everything, and random bumps can easily catch your car out as much as
you (since bumps can affect one side of the car or one tire at a time,
so the other side that's still touching the ground may suddenly do
something unexpected).  The more you can attribute a crash to a specific
cause (either a mistake or a setup problem), the less frustrating it is.
And as we know, it takes only a slightly incorrect setup on the Formula
GT to make it almost undriveable, and you can chase your tail endlessly
trying to muck about with the interrelated puzzle of tuning adjustments.

Ultimately the car setup can seem to help or hinder you depending on how you
are driving that day, so its effects should be considered less important than
the ability to adjust one's driving style.  Nurburgring Nordschleife is
probably the best example of how crucial this adaptability is to getting
around the track in one piece, let alone setting a fast time.  And the Formula
Gran Turismo is a fairly extreme example of the spectrum of balance one can
experience in a single car (huge understeer, neutral, huge oversteer) 
depending on the phase of the corner and the driver's inputs.  There is a
reason some drivers get paid more than others - it's because the driving is
still the single most important factor in going faster.

That said, here is my GT5 Formula GT Nordschleife setup and my lap time.
I have spent a lot of time trying just about everything (extremes of camber,
spring and damper settings, transmission, LSD, aero balance) to find any
improvement in balance and handling, but ultimately it was my previous
setup that still worked best.  The only difference - I have changed the
gearing for 2nd to be longer to avoid locking the rear wheels, and 4th is
a few hundredths shorter to improve the bite in certain corners.

Aero: 70, 90 (max)
Transmission: manual, 242mph (390kph), 2nd 4.180
LSD: 20, 60, 40

Suspension
Spring rate: 19.5, 19.5
Dampers: Front 10/8, Rear 10/8
Anti-Roll: 7, 7
Camber: 2.0, 1.6 
Toe: 0, 0.3 (rear toe in)

Brakes: 5, 4
Tires: RS
Driving aids: all off except ABS 1

Personal record (practice): 4'43.165
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrS4tFbRJT4

I'm certain the FGT will do a 4'42 or better - I've crashed
out of laps that were on pace to do so, and my 4'43 had over a half
second of mistakes in it. 4'45-4'46 is a comfortable pace for this
car; 4'44 or better requires pushing past the car's practical limit.


Ferrari F1
----------
There are two Ferrari F1 cars (F2007 and F2010) - I mainly drive the
F2007.  Its handling is awesome, although with so much downforce you
do suffer a bit on straights, which is acceptable.  The one thing I
don't particularly like is the camera angles - with no proper hood
camera, I must use the helmet cam (which is a bit too high and far
back, but now that I finally use a proper wide-aspect flat screen, this
is less annoying).  But on days when I don't have the patience to drive
the FGT with its twitchy low-aero handling, the F2007 is far more fun
to drive. It's nice when a car doesn't feel like it's forever
plotting new ways to stuff you into the Armco.  I even got an F2010,
but so far it feels slower and the balance is really awkward... look
at the suspension geometry and see the camber settings, kind of
extreme compared to most any other car.

F2007 Setup:
Aero 150, 196
Trans 211
LSD 6 33 12
Susp 20 10 8 7 (front and rear)
Align 2.0 1.0 0.0 0.30
Brakes 4 4
Driving aids: all off except ABS 1

Personal best (practice): 4'42.914

Fastest F2007 lap I've uploaded (4'43.434):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69RX0Mkc-pM


Red Bull X2010
--------------
You skilled and lucky drivers who reach level 30, then pass the Red Bull
X2010 Challenge with at least bronze times, will get an X2010 to practice
(at the Nordschleife).  Five minutes? Rubbish.  This thing can beat four
minutes without breaking a sweat.  The car is crazy fast, thanks to a few
technologies that are banned from F1 (such as ground effects, fans, turbo)
plus a few other aero improvements like a canopy and wheel cowls.  More
on this in the addendum on the Red Bull X2010 Challenge.  When I time
attack in this car, the main thing is to max the downforce.  Its diff is
already set to 7 35 15 to help it turn.  I think my best, which is about
the average for quickest times I've seen, is around 3'20.  It's been a
while since I drove it...


NASCAR, or My Newfound Respect
------------------------------
I know what you're thinking, something like "WTH does a NASCAR stock car
have to do with the Nordschleife?"  How about 6'04.794, sound good? I am
simply astonished at how well the Jeff Gordon #24 Impala handles when
you consider that it weighs 3400 pounds.  Further, I noticed that it
takes a driving style not unlike what I use for the Formula GT.  So you
could say I am a little bit more interested in NASCAR than before GT5.
I already know that they test at a track very dear to my own racing
heart (VIR), so how cool might it be if they brought a stock car over
to the hallowed Nurburgring to see what's what?  As long as you are
careful with the weight and remember not to put all the power down
too aggressively on corner exits, you'll stay out of the Armco.  
Any NASCAR stock car can even beat the Seasonal Real Circuit Tours
Nurburgring 24h, which is filled with Group C cars (Sauber C9, etc).
Check my youtube channel for a vid of that, driving the Tony Stewart
#14 Impala.


Touring Cars
------------
Ah, touring cars - I'm quite fond of them.  Sometimes it's just so
refreshing to drive a car that has more grip than power, and stays on
the track almost no matter how hard you drive it.  They all tend to
understeer a bit, so I have a specific setup I apply to all touring
cars (whether they be DTM or JGTC) to make them rotate more freely,
and then it's just happy time.  Give me the Xanavi GT-R or the
CLK '00 and I'll do lap after lap without feeling bored or annoyed.

As for the setup: max the aero then take some off the rear, put the
diff at about 7 35 15, then put the brakes toward the rear (3/7).
This depends on the layout of the car, of course - but most are FR.
If the car is MR (e.g. Audi R8 LM), put the diff at 8 36 18 or so.
Most of the touring cars can beat 6'30 around the Nordschleife
(I sometimes do a 1-minute standing start, and even then you will
clobber everyone in the 1-lap DTC).

I'm still trying to complete my collection of every DTC and Super GT
car I can find...


The GT40s
---------
Tricky to handle, but sublime anyway - the Ford GT40s that won
Le Mans in the late 60's are among my favorite race cars in
GT5.  I particularly like the 1967 Mark IV - its handling is so
enjoyable (though one must not be careless of course, given its
MR layout) and may even be better than the Gulf GT40 from 1969
that we love.  Actually I'm very glad it handles well, given that
it cost 20 million (as does its main rival, which also handles
nicely and is fun to drive, though the 330 P4 isn't quite as
good as the Mark IV).  I really don't do anything to the setup
of the Mark IV - it feels fine the way it is - it's more of a
driving style thing.


Other vehicles
--------------
Later on I'll mention how important it is to do some really slow laps
at the Nordschleife so you can fully appreciate its complexity and its
subtleties... and you won't always want merely to drive slower in a
favorite fast car.  I'm not saying all these cars are slow, but definitely
not in the 5-minute lap range... these are just some other cars that
I've enjoyed (some more frustrating than others).

Zonda R - 6'19.994 stock, 5'56.538 tweaked
PDI Kart - 10'20.884
Mugen Civic - 7'38.922
Ferrari F40 - 6'55.887

Driving Aids
------------
I always have these turned off, especially since some of them will
actually slow you down if you're a reasonably good driver.  Traction
control pretty much ruins full accelerating corner exits still, although
in some cars it's surprising how you may not notice the aids are on
sometimes - GT5 has improved them so the car balance is still good.
GT5 is pretty good at remembering what your preference is but usually
seems to default with TC at 5 on new cars (and sometimes it forgets
your prefs and sets it to that on practice laps anyway).  I think
everyone pretty much leaves ABS on its default "1" setting, so that
braking feels similar to the way it worked in GT4 - getting a feel
for braking without ABS is still a bit fine for it to work well in
GT yet... maybe if the pedals were better it would be interesting.
Skid recovery is the one that people seem to argue about a lot,
from the aspect of using it but denying it (even though it's pretty
obvious in corner entries).  Most of the aids have indicators so
you can see whether they are in use or not.


==============
Game Equipment
==============

My current setup:
Logitech Driving Force GT wheel
Logitech G25 pedals (modified)
Sparco cockpit with a Sienna seat (modified)
Cheap Panasonic surround sound with subwoofer

A driving cockpit and a 900-degree wheel will certainly improve your
game dramatically.  Just the immersion alone will be worth it regardless,
being able to adjust the seat, pedals, and wheel to the exact positions
you desire, and having a completely stable base to minimize any slop
from the body. I hear great things about the Thrustmaster or Fanatec
wheels, but most of us are probably using mid-level, affordable driving
wheels from Logitech.

I have a big bone to pick with the DF GT, and I'm sure it's in common with
many other DF GT owners who find that its durability leaves something to
be desired.  I'm on my second one already, and it started making creaking
noises within a week.  It's enough to make you consider other options that
might cost the same as two DF GT wheels but last longer.  The DF GT has
detailed feedback and good features (like the select wheel for changing
settings on the fly), but it feels very cheap and flimsy, and even with
the feedback on 10 and power steering off, it's rubbery and faint, so 
you have to guess how much steering input to add sometimes.  The DFP was
much more solid, and I like its smaller diameter which makes its feedback
feel stronger through the lack of mechanical advantage (and the wheel
is simply heavier).  However the DFP is slightly lacking in detail, has
a dead zone in the middle, and is just too slow at fast maneuvers.

To be honest, that weak, rubbery feedback in the newer Logitech wheels
(G25, DF GT, etc) always tempts Mr. Hand to become Mr. Fist.  My G25 wore
out far too quickly on its own, but also certainly met its demise in an
accelerating fashion due to how often it reacted in ways that would make
me lose my patience, then bearing, then any shred of temper.  After that,
I tend to bellow expletives that would make Kurt Busch blush, and the wheel
inevitably changes from precision instrument to percussion instrument.

One other weakness in the DF wheels is the plastic pedals, which are
amazingly unimproved.  The G25 pedals are much better, but they aren't
compatible with the DFP/DF GT wheels without rewiring. You could also find
an adapter to join them up - I would suggest trying that first.

G25 Pedal Mod (for use with DF wheels)
--------------------------------------

  The following advice will almost certainly void your warranty, so read on
  only if you don't mind that, and also, don't attempt this unless you are
  fairly good with small electronics and are not taking chances with your
  only game equipment.  I take no responsibility if your workmanship is not
  successful.  This is just my notes on what I did to get mine to work.
  Again, I've since seen adapters online that can accommodate this so
  you may want to try that first.

To make the G25 pedals work with the DF wheels takes some rewiring, mainly
because the G25 brake wiring is backwards.  I went to Radio Shack to get
some wiring and connectors. This also requires some tools (a wire stripper,
and a Phillips screwdriver).  I also went to Home Depot for some sticky
Velcro (this is how I fasten the board so that I can get a better adjustment
on the seat, wheel, and pedal board positions).

Basically what I did is take the wiring out of one of my DFP pedal boards,
then bring it with me to buy wiring and connectors that are small enough to
adapt to it.  You'll only need to add a few inches to the length of three
of the wires due to the differing physical layout of the pedal switches.

On the wiring of the switches, you'll see that both pedals have a red and a
black wire on the left and right, plus a third middle wire which is either
white or green.  Here are the configurations that work with the DFP wheel:

DFP pedals original wiring (left to right - connectors on bottom):
  Throttle - single black, green, single red
  Brake - double black, white, double red

G25 pedals (again l-r connectors, right is nearest the red pedal pistons):
  Throttle - double black, white, double red
  Brake - *single red*, green, *single black*

Also, judicious use of electrical tape since the wires aren't grounded like
they are on the wiring loom of the G25 - cover any protruding metal where the
wire could touch; and with cutting/stripping/crimping, make it as clean as
possible.  The smallest wiring and connectors I could find were still a bit
larger than the existing, but I found with some bending I could get a nice
snug fit.  I haven't had any problems in over a year of use, though I did
decide the brake pedal is a bit too stiff, so I switched it with the clutch
pedal (and also, I put this all the way on the left, so there's an empty
space in the middle; this way I don't hit my knees on the underside of the
steering wheel clamps).  Finally, to make the Sparco cockpit accommodate the
pedals and the reclined position, I had to turn the foot panel upside down
and use a great amount of industrial strength sticky velcro... which is nice
because it holds perfectly but is still adjustable.


New PS3 System
--------------

Recently I had problems with my 60GB PS3 disc drive (shocker), and even
after about a dozen attempts to disassemble, clean, reassemble, the thing
refused to work.  It was getting to be a power hog and a noisy, heavy
thing that tended to overheat anyway... so I got a 320GB PS3 and followed
the instructions online on how to transfer all of your data, which worked
perfectly.

One catch - if you didn't export your saved replays, you lose the ability
to view them in the Replay Theater.  NOTE: you don't lose them entirely -
if you go to the track where you set a lap, you do have access to your
saved ghost replays to load and race against. So they are all in there
somewhere, it's just the game that essentially limits your access to
them.  I hope this is something PDI will fix eventually - obviously if
it can load your old ghost replays, it should be able to find them in
Replay Theater as well.


==================
Shoes - On or Off?
==================

My suggestion is use what you are comfortable with.  At my house we are
shoeless so I got all of my quickest times wearing socks - this seems
to be ideal for the game since it compensates for the lack of feedback and
weight in the pedals.


=================
Left-Foot Braking
=================

Many drivers say this skill is indispensable in racing - and both karting and
Formula 1 pretty much require it.  Even when you are driving a car that has
a clutch, in some situations where no gear shift is needed it can be useful
to employ left-foot braking for stability as well as a quicker braking reaction
time.  I began practicing this extensively in my old car and in the game I
use it exclusively.  Even at racing school in some corners it came in handy.
At this point it has improved my fastest time in pretty much every car, not
to mention making it easier to drive in other conditions (especially rally;
but then real rally drivers are constantly shifting both feet between
brake/gas and brake/clutch). 


==========================================
Driving Tips That Have Helped Me Go Faster
==========================================

"The exit of the corner is much more important than the entry to the corner,
with regards to smoothness.  And another thing is that you never put your
foot on the gas until you're sure you won't have to take it back off."
- Jackie Stewart

First, always bear in mind that as you improve in one section, it changes
your rhythm into the next, and so on.  All it takes is time, practice, and
gradual improvements in your knowledge of the car and the track. Very often
when you are pushing your limit and going off the track, getting frustrated,
feeling like quitting... you are actually on the verge of making a huge
improvement.  So remember it's all part of the process of training your
brain and your muscle memory.  Take a rest, come back a few hours or a day
later, and you'll be surprised how easy it suddenly gets.  It was often
the same way when I was learning to play guitar.

Next, if you want to improve your lap time, it is crucial to consider the
importance of corner exits over late braking.  Obviously I brake as late
as I can, but braking later improves time in hundredths of a second, while
getting on the throttle earlier for the exit improves your time in tenths.
Remember that the reverse is also true - braking too early loses time in
just hundredths, but braking too late and then getting on the throttle late
loses time in tenths.

What this means is you should work backward - get the exit point right first,
then try to improve your entry, then finally polish your braking point.
The correct braking point goes hand in hand with the correct turn-in and 
throttle point however - braking too early often invites turning too early,
which can lead to going off the track at the exit; while braking too
late means you waste a lot of time going past the ideal turn-in and in some
corners you may not make the turn at all.  The simplest thing I try to remember
is that the lap time is essentially the sum of throttle and braking, and the
finish line is a finite point, so whatever gets me there earlier is good,
and I want to avoid doing anything that makes the lap longer by adding more
time braking, coasting, feathering, or otherwise not on full throttle.

"Work backward" also applies to figuring out the best line to take through
corner complexes: the idea is that the last corner usually needs the best
exit, so the preceding corners require adjusted lines to accommodate
this prioritization.  Usually this means turning much earlier for the
first corner in a complex in order to set up a corner going the opposite
direction.  The line you choose for any corner is always a compromise
between shortest distance and highest speed, and corner complexes are
often approached by choosing a shorter distance for initial corners
so that you can have maximum speed exiting the final corner.

Essentially the ideal that we want to work toward (though we may not always
achieve it) is the Bertil Roos idea of Full Throttle, Full Brake, Full Time.
What this means is you are working toward an ideal that you know the track
and your car so well, that you only use either full throttle, or full brake,
but nothing else.  Again, this is an IDEAL - it doesn't mean we ignore our
techniques of light braking, feathering the throttle, line recovery, etc when
we get in trouble or when certain track areas require it.  There probably are
tracks where FT/FB/FT is possible, but I don't think the 'Ring is one of them.
Here, you just try to reach that ideal in sections that are smooth enough to
allow it.

Another valuable piece of advice is from Petter Solberg: "You have to try to
be very neat, no attack, because as soon as you try to push harder, you go
slower.  So just keep it neat and steady."  Professor Nakaya seems to concur,
that in some situations the driver's attempt to push harder will be useless
since it only increases the steering angle as well as the friction of the
wheels on the pavement, which cancels out or even negates any increase the
driver desires to make. Again, aggressive driving is often useful in racing,
but for time attack you want to be as smooth as possible, and in some corners
you just want to maintain revs but apply only enough throttle to get the right
balance.

The book "Winning" had some interesting advice also - basically that you
should not feel "comfortable" while racing - you should be going at the limit
and often fighting for grip on every corner.  What I've found is on many
corners you want to go for a certain amount of slip to get the optimum exit
and full acceleration.  This will of course make it difficult to control
wheel spin as well as keeping the rear from sliding around as you try to
steer your way out.  Another way to put it, sometimes your steering may feel
sloppy or busy as you try to manage the low traction situation known as 
maximum acceleration.  There's a practical limit for every car, and then
there's the real limit if you're able to push into the slip angle just the
right amount.  But the closer you get to the limit, the more risky it
becomes and the smaller a mistake needs to be to exceed the limit.  As Senna
might say, this place makes you very fragile and it can all be gone in an
instant; yet you must go for it.

Undulating corners are all over the place at Nordschleife, but they are not
as friendly and predictable as a track like Suzuka, so you will need to think
about how weight transfer affects braking and throttle as your car alternates
quickly between understeer and oversteer, often in the same corner - not easy
to do in a video game, where the vertical changes aren't always visually
obvious.  Thankfully, PS3 games seem to have improved this dramatically over
the way most of them were on the PS2.  If you find spots where you tend to
spin out even with steady throttle and steering input, an undulation may be
the cause. In some cases it can also be crowned pavement but this is the
same thing, just laterally.

In GT5 the thing I find myself thinking about most is how the car handling
is basically all about finding balance - the brain is always trying to make
sense of the "actions have equal and opposite reactions" principle, and the
fact that you're always essentially riding on a bunch of springs and rubber
bands that are constantly having different ripples of force tossed at them.
Since you can't actually feel your body and 2000-odd pounds of steel being
shifted around, you have to commit to memory and learn to anticipate what
these actions and reactions are going to do.

Once you feel really dialed in after many laps of practice, you'll start to
experience feeling like it's just basic flowing lines, using as smooth and
steady inputs as you can manage, adjusting the acceleration for the shape of
each corner.  (I can hear Bruce Lee saying "Don't think!  Feeeeeeeel...")
Your mind is clear and calm because your body is just nailing each section.
When you feel it, it is magic.

Ok, now it's time to take a lap around the track!

===========================
Nordschleife - Step by Step
===========================

Note: Sadly a lot of the graffiti seems to be gone in GT5, but frequently
I look at the kerbs - front edges for braking points, back edges for turn
in points, etc.  There is still graffiti in some particular spots though,
so learn where this is - usually it marks particularly difficult corners
where you need to know the last possible spot to brake or turn in.

Remember also that the track is far more bumpy in GT5 than it was in GT4,
and the kerbs aren't as friendly either.  Or the cambers.  Or the corner
lines, or the undulations.  Basically way more places to cause mistakes.

Again, the gearing is for the Formula Gran Turismo.  For the X2010
the gearing depends on which one you are driving (S. Vettel [bronze] or
the black [silver or gold]) and how much downforce you have added -
you'll probably want that maxed out. If you actually won any of these
cars, then I doubt you really need my advice :)


T13 (grandstand section)
------------------------

5th - Brake-4-3 - left - 4-5 - right bend - 6th - right - 7th - left bend

Right off the bat, the right to T13 is slippery - it's easy to mess up and 
go wide left into the grass, or spin into the wall on the right.  And the
first left is a doozy as well.  You wouldn't believe how easily your lap
can be over before it even starts.

If you got a good exit from the final right turn of Hohenrain, you should be
coming toward the start/finish straight accelerating from 3rd gear through 4th
and 5th, tracking to the right side. 2nd gear doesn't always help here
for the first left, but we'll see when I start playing with the ratios.
Because it's downhill, it's easy to miss the apex here.

Flat out into 6th gear for the second right, which is slightly more difficult
than it was in GT4, so anticipate for an early turn in and squeeze out of
the wheel a bit on the exit (most other cars won't do this flat - one gear
change down).  7th gear before you brake for the next section.

Hatzenbach (Hatzen Brook)
-------------------------

Brake-6-5-left-4 - double right - 5th - left - 4th - right-left

I have started taking the left while downshifting all the way to 4th so I can 
throttle earlier through the right; I think it also keeps the rear end a bit
more stable.  Back up to 5th for the next left about where the path is,
throttle through, then keep the revs high in 4th to throttle to the right, then
a tiny lift in 4th to switch left, exiting wide and heading to the next section
in 5th gear.

Hocheichen (Great Oaks)
-----------------------

Brake-4th - right - careful throttle - left - flat 5-6-7

This section seems tighter than in GT4 - don't be late here.  I've become
familiar with all sorts of ways to crash here in GT5...

As you approach the first right, brake fairly early down to 4th gear,
turn in and give it some gas toward the crest; this spot needs a very delicate
touch on the throttle to avoid spinning as the road drops under you, and the
camber for the left also does strange things.  It's almost a mini corkscrew.

If I make it this far without crashing the Formula Gran Turismo, I'm relieved,
since it's easy to blow laps anywhere in Hatzenbach or Hochichen.  So many
difficult turns in just the first 26 seconds.

Quiddelbacher Hohe (Quiddelbach Height)
---------------------------------------
T1

Flat - over crest - right

This section is flat out but bumpy, stick to the basics and you should reach
7th gear before the brutal crest at the start of the next section.

Flugplatz (Airfield, literally "Flying Place")
----------------------------------------------

Flat - over crest - settle - double right - left - left

Easier than in GT4.

Go over the left center of the crest as straight as you can and stay on
the throttle.  You should have a beat to let the car settle before
heading into the double-apex right-hander.  This corner is easy to get
wrong going flat out at this speed, but this is all flat in 7th gear if you
take it smoothly enough.  Barely touch the first apex, and you should
come around the second one in a single arc.  Keep going flat out into the
next section.

Schwedenkreuz (Swedish Cross)
-----------------------------

Flat 7th - left - crest - careful long bumpy left - still flat

This is all flat out, in 7th gear.  Go over the crest near the middle or
slightly right but go as straight as possible.  The next long left is totally
flat, but you need to be very gentle with the turn in, and there is a bump
about half-way through that can be unsettling.  Also, try not to touch the
inside kerb which tends to throw off your balance.  Try to make the car
track slightly left of center as you get ready to brake hard down to 3rd
into the next section.

Aremberg
--------
T2 

BRAKE-6-5-4-3 - long right - flat on exit

It's important for your time to get a good exit here so concentrate on your
braking point and get a good line. I usually start braking just where the edge
of the kerb ends on the left.  This is a somewhat long right-hander so
throttle control is important. If you can do this without 3rd gear it can
improve your time but 4th can also cause a lot of understeer.  Try to get a
straight line for good acceleration on the exit toward the bridge.  You can
take a lot of kerb on the exit if you have to but avoid it normally.

Fuchsrohre (Foxhole or "Fox's Neck")
------------------------------------

Flat to 7th left-right-left - right - left up hill - 6th - left

Drive through the bends as straight as you can, touching each kerb, until you
approach the compression that leads up the hill to the left.  You can stay
completely flat all the way to 7th gear. As you come up the hill stay to the
right, and the left over the crest is rather delicate now, but go as straight
as you can, or better turn early and avoid the kerb, then quickly drop to 5th
for the next bit.  The section after the crest is extremely bumpy now, so
it takes a delicate touch to stay on the track.

Adenauer Forst (Adenau Forest)
------------------------------
T3  

Dab 5th - right - brake-4-left-3 - early left - right - 4th - exit flat 5-6-7

It is really easy to screw up this section, so think ahead.

Keep your revs steady in 5th for the right, hugging the kerb without
touching it, then as the track straightens drop to 3rd to prepare for the
"newbie corner".  Avoid braking too late, and if you can, smoothly connect the
two lefts, using a line to set up the right. If you can avoid the kerb on
the right then do so, but the Formula car may have other ideas.  If you are
patient and focus on setting up early throttle for the right and a good exit,
it's a lot easier to find time here.

You should be well into 5th gear as you pass the section timer.  Continue
accelerating flat out into 7th for the next section.

Metzgesfeld (Metzge's Field)
----------------------------

Flat - bend left-right-left - left - left - brake-6-5-4 - left-5th-right

Deceptively difficult - it's flat if you do it perfectly, but if you miss
the apex or bump the kerb the least bit, you'll visit the big grass field
on the right.  I usually have to turn in twice, hard.

Give extra attention to your line, carefully sweep through flat in 7th gear
then brake down to 4th for the next left.  Watch the kerb, and 4th may feel
boggy if you turn in too late or brake a bit too much.  5th gear by the
right turn apex and down the hill, but it's very bumpy and slippery through
this section so be careful with the throttle. 

Kallenhard (Kallen Forest)
--------------------------

Brake-4-3 - right - 4-5 - left - 6th

Let the car track left as you come down the hill, and you want to brake fairly
early and drop back to 3rd.  The kerb on the inside right is a good reference,
brake at its front edge.  Apex late but get on the inside until you can see
a clear exit, shift to 4th, and track to the outside.  Continue through 5th
and 6th as you bend left and approach the next scary sections of the track.

Spiegelkurve (unofficial, "Mirror Curve")
-----------------------------------------

Flat 6th - left-right - sort out messy exit

You know, this isn't anywhere near as difficult now.  The wide line works
without too much drama now, and there is space to work with if you mess
up before the next part.  Not to be underestimated, however.


"Miss-Hit-Miss" (also Drei Rechte, "Three Rights")
--------------------------------------------------

6th - bleed revs - miss - hit - flat 6th - miss

Big change from GT4 - now, it's the front end you have to worry about.  Very
easy to blow it here.

This is another place where the turns feel like they change on you so you don't
want to be accelerating and tightening your turning arc at the same time. 
It feels like this is easier, but the tendency is to understeer after the third
right. If you get the car to the right spot on the "hit" kerb then you can keep
the throttle flat for the exit without worrying about the edge of the track too
much.  I'd leave it in 6th here, with a small lift to get the car pointed.

Wehrseifen (Resistance Valley)
------------------------------
T4 

Brake-5-4-right-3-left-2-left - 3rd - right - 4th - exit - flat 5-6

This is a very slow corner where much time can be lost, so it's important
to be as accurate as possible.  Get your braking done early - focus on
making a really good exit through the left and right.  Go too deep and
you'll only be losing time.  Once I realized the left is really a double left,
I altered my line somewhat and it made some time.

As you go to 2nd, make sure to keep the revs high.  Smoothly accelerate in 3rd
just after the left and get to 4th for the following right.  Careful with the
exit.  Flat to 5th and 6th toward the next section.

Breidscheid
-----------

Right bend - brake-5-4 - double left watch the wall - 5th

There's a concrete wall here for a reason.  Very easy to lose it here not
only by braking too late, but just generally from poor grip through the middle
of the corner - keep your rear end in check and try to be precise.

Approach the right bend in 6th gear but start braking for the left somewhat
early - you want to be in 4th and close to the inside.  The pavement is
not grippy and difficult to do with full throttle, and going too wide makes it
hard to set up the following right turn.  Get 5th on the exit and the car
will get some acceleration to the next bit.  Line the car up as straight as
you can leading to the next right.

Ex-Muhle (Water Mill)
---------------------

Bumpy - early, light brake 4th - minimum speed, light power - right - flat 5-6

This section is a little less delicate than before.  The right is tricky, so
time your turning and throttle with suspension compression to make it easier;
if you are out of sync you'll find sluggish turning and wheel spin.

Approach in 5th gear and brake lightly and early since it gets bumpy, uphill,
and off camber - the entry will understeer so use the graffiti and turn in
somewhat early, staying tight on the apex.  Little bit of crest here so
release your arc and get good throttle on the exit, but if you go too wide
it will take a while to get back on the power.  Also be careful accelerating up
the hill - you should get up to 5th before the crest but if you push too hard
you might get wheel spin and possibly lose the rear. Continue flat out through
6th gear into the next section.

Lauda Links
-----------

Flat 7th - left

In the Formula car there isn't much to this - stay hard on the throttle and you
should reach 7th gear near the apex, after which you can keep accelerating
down the hill and track a bit off to the left before the next section.

Bergwerk (Mine, literally "Mountain Work")
------------------------------------------

Brake-6-5-4 - right - 5th - right - left flat 6th

Similar to Ex-Muhle though not as delicate, this is one of the most important
corners for getting a strong exit.  This corner's odd shape and weird camber
make most attempts to brake late end in understeer followed by tracking wide
into the Armco - usually I use the Bergwerk sign on the right as a reference,
braking at or just after it.  Brake consistently to 4th, and though this is
a late apex corner, the entry is a bit earlier than you may think because of
the uphill and the camber.  Work the throttle patiently and get a good exit.
The exit is also tricky - there are weird dips and crowns that can easily
throw you off if you don't pay attention to them.

Kesselchen (Little Valley, "Little Bottom")
-------------------------------------------
T5 

Left-7th-left-left - left - right, right, right-left

Easy to underestimate this section - it is much bumpier now, and one of the
lefts is more difficult to do flat-out in most cars.  Reminds me a bit of the
four-apex left in Turkey GP, maybe they got it from here...

The Formula car easily takes this flat all the way through.  There is a series
of left bends where you should reach 7th gear.  The next right curves are quite
bumpy, which is one place where stability control can freak out and careen you
into the Armco.  After this there is a quick right-left, so try to miss-hit the
split kerbs on the right, then just touch the edge of the kerb on the left. Aim
for a straight line that will put you on the kerb up close to the Armco at the
right edge, and brace for the next section.

Mutkurve (Courage Curve, also Angstkurve, "Fear curve") 
-------------------------------------------------------
T6 

Flat 7th - double left - left

The formula car takes this easy flat now.  Just make sure you use a good line.
Get tight inside for the first apex and then track toward the outside.  Another
left bend after that.

Klostertal (Convent Valley)
---------------------------

Flat 7th - left-right - crest - relaxed exit

Turn early with a lot of anticipation.

There's a big bump on the right here now, so you'll have to consider that
when establishing your line.  But, with the right rhythm and setup this
also isn't too difficult in the Formula Gran Turismo now.

Steilstrecke (Steep Stretch)
----------------------------

BRAKE-left-6-5-4-3 - double right - 4th - exit - 5-6

Understeer - oversteer.

This tight curve is hidden by a crest that you will go over flat out, then
brake just before the kerb on the left, down to 3rd.  This is another curve
that has a couple of apexes, and it's really slippery now also.  Enter in
3rd gear, 4th past the second apex.  There are gentle bends leading to the
next section but you can easily go straight and keep accelerating, just
reaching 6th gear before dropping hard back to 3rd again.

Karussell
---------

Brake-5-4-3 - long left - exit - 4th - two rights flat 5-6

You can make or lose a lot of time here because of how slow and long it is.
However, I think the feel of the banking is much better here now. The main
thing is your entry - how you drop in (straight) has a lot to do with
how well you stay in.

This tight banked corner is easiest if you keep the car inside but not all the
way to the kerb, and keep the revs steady in 3rd, slowly accelerating, until
you see the exit is close, where you can give it more if your car is still in
the banking.  Pop over the last corner stone and start throttling hard toward
the next section.

Hohe Acht (High Lookout, after the hut)
---------------------------------------
T7 

Right - left - left-brake-5-left - right - Brake-4 - right - Flat 5th

You should be high in 6th gear, after exiting Karussell and passing the tricky 
left-hander flat out - sometimes I get 7th before dropping to 5th for the
tight left-right toward the summit.  Be patient with the throttle and set up
a good line - the rear grip goes away as you crest so be gentle.  Brake early
down to 4th for the right and stay tight on the inside so you can be back
on the throttle hard at the apex.

Hedwigshohe (Hedwig's Height)
-----------------------------

Left - 6th - right - light brake 5th - left

Believe it or not you can take this flat in 6th if you get the right line, but
you have to keep the car steady and smooth on the steering before you tap the
brake at the exit and into 5th for the next curve.  Getting this wrong will
totally blow your balance into...

Wipperman (Seesaw Man)
----------------------

Left - downhill right - tap brake - uphill right

This spot is an easy place to lose it because of the abrupt way that it goes
downhill, and when I went to the real track we saw an accident here. This
tricky left-right gets a bit snappy and has a tendency to toss you right off
the track, so you'll find is a lot easier in the Formula if you concentrate
on keeping the car balanced.  This is in 5th gear now, and I'm usually
aiming to take some kerb for the right.  As you approach the uphill avoid
braking too late since it will cause understeer that will probably put you
on the grass as you go over the crest.  I stay in 5th if I can.

Eschbach (Ash Brook)
--------------------

Brake-4 - double left - 5th

Understeer then oversteer.  Great gallery point at the exit...

Brake somewhat early to drop back to 4th for the downhill double left
hander, which is another part where it is easy to miss the entry and/or
lose the rear.  Wait for the car to settle between apexes before you shift
to 5th gear for the second apex. 

Starting here there are nice white bands of graffiti to help you find good
braking points.

Brunnchen (Little Well)
-----------------------

Brake-4th - right - 5th - brake-4th - right - 5th

This is another dance between 4th and 5th gears.  The first right hander is
very easy to overcook as it is downhill, and very often you will find yourself
all the way to the left on the exit, almost into the grass.  If you can keep
just the left wheels on the kerb you will still be able to get good throttle
in 5th before the next right, again dropping to 4th for the turn and back to
5th as the car tracks to the outside of the exit (but be especially careful
here, the sand will lose you a lot of time).  There is a certain melody
with the revs, dropping to 4th slightly lower each time.

Eiskurve (Ice Curve)
--------------------
T8 

Brake-4th - left - 5th through right - 6-7

Tons of crowned pavement through here.  Plus camber going the wrong way.

This left-hander is again taken in 4th, but it seems longer and goes into a
tricky right hander on the exit.  I've started braking earlier (using the white
graffiti as a braking reference - again like Wehrseifen, if you find the left
is difficult to make it means you're too deep) so I can use more throttle.  The
pavement also crowns and is really slippery (hence the name), so stay in the
middle of the pavement as you accelerate into 5th and 6th gears for the next
section.

Pflanzgarten 1 (Plant Garden)
-----------------------------

Left, left, right, over crest STRAIGHT - settle-dab-6th-right-right

Try to be aggressive into the first right after the jump, since it's hard
to get very much grip until the big drop.

The wavy bends can be taken flat, sticking to the basics but ending
up slightly to the left as you go over the little jump at the bottom.  
Like other jumps, this seems less severe now, so the main trick is not to
go too wide and get caught by the grass as you dab into 6th and head into
the tricky double right.  Keep accelerating but of course be smooth as you
sweep through toward the next part.  Your exit here can make or lose
considerable time all the way to Schwalbenschwanz.

Sprunghugel (Leap Hill)
------------------------

Moderate - left - 7th before exit - left - STRAIGHT over left side of drop

This first left is another easy place to mess up and not be in the right
position to track to the rumble strip on the right side of the exit.  The
slippery entry is the part that is tricky now - the drop really isn't
a problem anymore.

Pflanzgarten 2
--------------
T9 

Flat 7th - hook up with dark inside patches - right, left-right, left

This section is flat out in 7th and is much easier than in GT4 since the
car feels softer and absorbs the pavement.  Or maybe the pavement has
been resurfaced...

Schwalbenschwanz (Swallow Tail)
-------------------------------

Flat 7th - right - brake-6-5-4 - left - 5th

I can finally do the entry flat here.  The timing is crucial and your line
needs to be very accurate in order to set up the following left, so focus,
get inside near the kerb and smoothly relax the exit.  I don't worry about
crowning since it feels like you can just use traditional lines now. Brake
quickly to 4th for the left turn-in.  5th gear as you head on to the next part.

Kleinekarussell (Little Karussell)
----------------------------------

Brake-4 - drop into banking left - pop out - left - flat 5-6

MUCH better than in GT4 or NFS:S.  Stay in 4th.

It's all too easy to underestimate this important corner.  But since it is
flat from here on, it's crucial to do this well.  Approach in 5th and
brake somewhat early to 4th.  Drop half the car inside and try to build
revs as you pop out over the right corner of the last paving block.
Continue through 5th, and into 6th for the approach to the next corner.

Galgenkopf (Gallow Hill)
------------------------

Dab 6th - don't touch kerbs - right-right - right - exit

Not to be underestimated, but it's easier than in GT4.  Like 3 rights, now
you can just turn in and not worry about the rear so much.

The trick is getting the first right apex - you definitely do not want to hit
the kerb as you will almost certainly bounce and crash into the Armco, but if
you go the slightest bit too wide you will not stay on the track.    

Try to anticipate the kerb for the third right hander and dive in, staying
flat on the throttle and close to the inside kerb.  Normal exit.

Dottinger Hohe (Dottingen High)
-------------------------------
T10 

Flat 7th - looooong straight

Not much to this - keep it flat in 7th and stick just off center to the right.
The car should be reaching top speed as you start on the incline before the
bridge, let the car go all the way right...

Antoniusbuche (Antonius' Beech)
-------------------------------
T11 

Flat 7th - left - down hill

Turn early and ease through the left hander, totally wide open.  You will get
the T11 section time as you pass under the bridge.  Keep it flat out down the
hill...

Tiergarten (Animal Garden)
--------------------------

Flat 7th - left-right

This section near the end leads to a left-right that you can take flat out in
the Formula car, so don't lift or anything, just stick to the basics and go as
fast as you can.  Once you clear the right and are going straight, immediately
drop to 6th for the final section...

Hohenrain (Raised Boundary)
---------------------------
L1

Brake-6-5-left-4-3 - right-4th-left - brake - 3rd - right - 4-5

I enter this left while braking down all in one motion...

Cut to the inside left while braking into 5th, straighten and drop quickly 
down to 3rd for the right hander of the chicane, keeping the revs high but
steady since this corner is an easy place to spoil what might have been a
stellar lap time.  I stay off the kerbs and shift to 4th just after the apex
of the right, going into the left with careful throttle. 

Brake to 3rd and get ready for the final right-hander.  Aim for the Armco
at the apex and just miss it - don't go too wide as you make your last effort
at throttling hard up the hill to the finish.  This corner is slippery and
I've blown laps here several times.  You should make 5th gear and then
cross and get your final lap time.


========================
Addendum 1 - AMG Academy
========================

To unlock the Nurburgring Nordschleife in Practice and Arcade mode, you must
first complete the Beginning and Intermediate AMG Academy Special challenges
with Bronze times (fairly easy if you know the track, and even the
gold times are pretty generous if you know the track really well). Silver
will unlock the 4-hour Endurance, Gold will unlock the 24-hour (though
you will still need high driver levels to get to these).

AMG Academy is meant to teach you how to lap the Nordschleife safely,
section by section.  Each of four tiers is split into five segments - the
first four are the quarters of the track, followed by a fifth segment
which requires a full lap in traffic (complete with boneheaded-tourist
driving styles, so be alert).  Tiers 1 and 3 are in the old gull-wing
300SL, while Tiers 2 and 4 are in the new SLS AMG; tiers 1-2 are dry,
while 3-4 are wet.  I also feel that the grip seems slightly better for the
full lap than in the segments, even though the tires are supposedly the
same spec.

Wet Racing
----------
Driving fast in the wet is not unlike driving a car with way too much power
and no grip - basically you have to think ahead a lot more and don't even
consider trying to "push harder" - you'll probably go slower, or crash.
I just try to do everything smooth and early, and remember the advice for
wet driving of "drag strips and braking zones", along with "middle-middle-
middle" somewhat.  Depends on the car, too, since the old gull-wing tends
to understeer (especially on braking) so you may actually want to use the
wet to kick out the tail slightly in some places.  In fact when I replay
the AMG Academy these days I turn off TC and set the brakes at 3/5 so they
are weaker and more toward the rear.  Mostly, just be smooth and think
way, way ahead.

Passing
-------
When overtaking slower traffic, one must try to follow the German
rule of drive-right (rechtsfahren) which means drive on the right, pass
on the left.  This principle of lane discipline means it is technically
illegal to hog the left lane, or pass on the right.  I say technically
because since this is a race track as well as a one-way toll road, and
obviously racing technique usually is pass on the inside (which could
of course be the left or right), you sometimes may find yourself having
to choose the safer of these two directives depending on the situation.
Another way to put it, if you find that the car in front has not shown
any acknowledgement that you are trying to pass, or let's say you catch
a car that has committed to the left line as you are both going to hard
braking, you may have to break the rechtsfahren rule to overtake safely.
The game isn't going to penalize you for doing this on rare occasions,
so go for it, but try to practice always passing on the left.  This will
of course get more and more difficult the faster you get - if you are
going for a lap time beyond the mere gold target, you won't want to waste
time waiting for the other cars to get out of the way, and very often
they will be in the wrong place, and especially in the wet they are so
slow that you will almost always catch them off guard.  I found that it
is possible to beat the gold times for the full wet laps by nearly
30 seconds, but you have to be a little aggressive and pass on the
right more often.

Rewards
-------
You get a lot of experience and credits for completing the AMG Academy,
and for getting all golds in the Expert tier, the prize car is the 2003
SLR McLaren.  And I love being able to practice segments of the 'Ring, 
which really helps to polish weaker spots without going through
the entire 13 miles each time.  I only wish you could do that in
practice with different cars...

My best times:
AMG Beginner full lap: 8'33.664
AMG Intermediate full lap: 6'56.992
AMG Advanced full lap: 9'14.863
AMG Expert full lap: 8'00.416


=====================================
Addendum 2 - Red Bull X2010 Challenge
=====================================

"No, no, no, light speed is too slow; yes, we're gonna have to go right to...
ludicrous speed!"

When you get to driver level 30, the Red Bull X2010 Challenge is unlocked
in the Special series.  If you can master this difficult challenge, you will
win a car that can lap the Nordschleife in well under four minutes, or
roughly half the time that a GT-R takes, and is capable of reaching
285 miles per hour or more.  The car is like nothing you have ever driven,
and demands skill and concentration like you've never needed before.

And, you win an X2010 for getting all three bronzes (S. Vettel), and another
if you can get all three silvers and another for all gold.  But this won't be
easy - you must know the three tracks extremely well, plus somehow adapt to
lap times that will be at least 20 seconds faster than anything you may have
done before.  It truly feels like you are playing with the fast forward
button on, it is that quick.  The other rewards are also generous - 235,000
credits and 463,640 experience points for bronze, 329,000 and 649,100 for
silver, and 470,000 and 927,280 if you hit a gold time.  This will quickly
take you through driver levels 31-33, but I repeat, it will not be easy -
you won't be able to get by with improvisation like you can with the rally
challenges for example.  This challenge is meant to be exclusive.  In fact,
it's almost arbitrarily difficult - even the demo car is only hitting a
silver time.

The main advice I can give is, push and push hard.  The car will have
racing soft tires on, and you will literally be amazed at the grip
available.  The biggest problem you will have in hitting even the
bronze times is that the car doesn't respond well to anything less
than full throttle - it requires finesse, but mostly it requires
commitment.  You can't miss apexes, either - you need to be very
precise.  The biggest problem you'll deal with as you reach silver and
attempt gold is the understeer, which is extremely pronounced especially
at Suzuka (scrubbing front tires on every corner).  Even with the diff
default set for lively handling, it still tends to produce understeer
almost no matter what you do (lift, brake, throttle...) and you really
have to be spacky to get it loose.  One last thing - push the boundaries
as much as you can without getting disqualified, since the ghost car
does the same thing (in chicanes, runoff, etc).  I'm not saying go
four wheels off deliberately (and mathematically that often leads to
diminishing returns anyway), but take what you need.  Keep in mind, the
target time for gold doesn't involve passing the lead car - you just
have to get close enough, so don't give up.

Avoiding understeer in the Red Bull X2010:
- Don't use TC (floor it out of the pits, let the tires spin)
- Use the DFP wheel if you have one (except at Suzuka)
- DF GT: add rear braking force (and/or cut front brakes a bit)
- Don't upshift early for corner exits (utilize high revs)
- Minimize throttle lifts
- Don't brake too deep
- Utilize lateral weight transfer
- Very clean footwork

Gold at Monza is reasonably possible to get without driving yourself mad,
I was able to do it the first day and I suspect many others had similar
success with it. But it took me several nights to gold the Nurburgring GP
and I've never been so exhausted as I was in finally getting that 2'07.9.
And Suzuka, they should rename the X2010 Suzuka round "The Understeer
Challenge" - I've never been more out of my mind with frustration and
the proverbial string of obscenities in the heat of battle was definitely
flowing profusely...  However, I finally got a 2'09.9 by going back to
the DF GT (DFP is too slow at quick hard changes in direction, especially
in the last chicane).

My Suzuka gold result is available here, but I stopped trying as soon as
I made it so there are probably better ones out there:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PwHSLk6kZw

Vettel Championship X2010 Online Challenge
------------------------------------------

Ok first I want to say it's a very nice gesture that GT5 is honoring
Vettel as the 2011 F1 drivers champion by giving away an S.Vettel
Red Bull X2010, and doing a time trial at Suzuka online for a whopping
5,000,000 credits if you get gold.

That said, the way they set this up is one of the biggest WTF moments
I've had in GT5.  The gold time is laughably easy (1'25, which is
20 seconds slower than you needed to gold the original X2010 challenge
at Suzuka) and why they keep gypping us on tires (RM) is beyond me.

Also, PDI seems to love understeer or something, because the X2010
is again set up for a lot of it.  I've tried to spin the car, but
even with ABS *off* and the brakes all the way to the rear, the
front end lets go first, and even if you nail apexes, you still might
slide off the exit.

This is either the easiest or most aggravating of the more lucrative
challenges in the game, depending on whether you care about being
competitive with the leaderboard.  Me, I had enough of wearing out my
wheel and scrubbing the front tires at 1'04.8, and it took a full
day to get rid of all the bad habits that challenge motor trained
into me.

Nonetheless, Congratulations Seb!! Well Done!


==========================
Addendum 3 - game progress
==========================

A-Spec Level 40 - The Grind is over.  B-Spec Level 29 - Oubliette.

First let me say that GT5 has nearly every improvement I wanted.
It's just epic.  They even brought back the Rome track, which is
really fun not only for the scenery but also since it is an
interesting, somewhat tricky circuit.  GT5 has some flaws of
course, but overall it is still the best (console) racing game
there is.

First two weeks: I finished all of the License tests, Special
challenges, and A-Spec series Beginner-Expert, and most of Extreme also.
(By "finished" I mean all golds - I learned that lesson in GT4 that
if you eventually want the 100% you have to win everything, so it's
worthwhile to do this initially instead of going back through later
and trying to find the bronze and silver stragglers.)

Third week: All about the Endurance series... until I reached
level 30 and unlocked the Red Bull X1 Challenge.  Getting to level 30
was tough though - most of the endurance races aren't enough by
themselves to advance to the next driver level that is required to
do the next endurance race.  I actually ran the Laguna race twice,
and the Indy 500 four times, just to be able to get to the next level
without repeating a lot of the other races.  But it was all worth it.


Grinding:
---------

"That's all it takes, really - pressure... and time."

The online Seasonal races really take away a lot of the need for
silly grinding since the rewards and credits are quite high for
relatively little effort/time.  Too bad I made it all the way to
level 40 before I ever raced online.

The grinding really started after finishing the 24h Le Mans race, when
I found out just how far I had to go to reach Level 40 and unlock the
final race (24h Nurburgring). Reaching Level 40 requires almost 50% more
experience than the TOTAL that you needed to get to level 36 from zero.
So just to unlock one last race in A-Spec required another 20 million
experience points.  There was a moment of despair, but then I also
I found out the reward cars for completing the race and therefore
the Endurance tier.  The gift car is a level 24, which only applies to
the Ferrari F1 cars (2007 or 2010), or the Formula Gran Turismo.
I formed a plan (realizing I'd never be happy until I was able to
complete that last 24h Nurburgring race), and went for it.

I did seventeen 4-hour Nurburgring races, calling it "practice"; using
the most ridiculous fast car that can spend half the time parked
and still win the race. I'm a big believer in legit wins (I did
my first 4h Nurb in the '69 Corvette), but the gloves come off
for grinding.  My car of choice was of course the black X2010.  There
were still times when I just didn't want to do another 4h Nurb enduro,
so I even went as far as repeating the 24h Le Mans more than once
(first two were soggy, but the third was 100% dry, so it varies).

The races with the highest rewards and experience without going online
are (times shown are approximate X2010 race times):
4-hour Nurburgring - 28 laps (2:15); 490,000

Suzuka 1000km - 172 laps (3:30 if it's dry); 618,000

Laguna - 90 laps (75 minutes); 158,000

24-hour Le Mans - 350-380 laps (16-17 hours); 4,500,000

Indy 500 - 200 laps (2:15); 250,000

However, the rewards for playing the online Seasonal races are so high
that I have used them to get every car I wanted (that will cooperate
with me and show up in the used lot).  Well almost - I still don't have
the Panoz yet.


24-hour Nurburgring:
--------------------
My first 24h Nurburgring was dry, so the pace of the lead car was about
7 laps per hour, or around 168 laps total (lessened by how many times
he got punted for obstructing the track when I was lapping him).  The
lighting effects during the 24h Nurburgring are spectacular - well
worth the wait and the effort of unlocking it (I thought the same thing
about Le Mans, so cool to race at night, enjoy the fireworks, etc).
Actually they are so fascinating that in both races I have gotten
distracted and run off the track occasionally.  Racing the Nordschleife
at night is exhilarating, and most of the corners are blind anyway...
but no, you'll still find it very tricky to race it in the dark.


B-Spec:
-------
Have you ever gone karting with a bunch of newbies who have clearly
only driven on the street and know nothing about racing?  You know how
they will often do the exact opposite of what you're supposed to do
in a given racing situation?  That's what the experience of B-Spec
frequently feels like, except it isn't only the other cars, it's your
driver too.

I'm ambivalent about b-spec's implementation in GT5, to say the least.
I think it's good that it's no longer just a tool for getting you out
of races you can't be bothered (or lack the ability) to do yourself,
and I indeed found it rewarding to run each endurance race for real
(instead of occasionally skipping some in GT4).  However, I don't find
much interest in having my frustration at the mercy of the game's
horrible AI, so at the moment b-spec is not all that fun; it's more
of a chore to get certain cars that aren't available anywhere else.
Had I known that the online races were more worthwhile as far as
credits and experience go, and also that these cars would eventually
turn up used (the GT40 is the main one I'm talking about here),
I doubt I would have bothered with b-spec.

Granted, you must have some coaching shrewdness since the driver does
respond in subtle ways with varying success depending on when you
precisely tell him "pace up" or "overtake" (too bad there isn't a
"stop rear-ending every car you're trying to pass, you sophomoric
jackwagon" button).  However, I'm sure everyone has noticed that
even in today's cutting-edge gaming technology, the AI cars leave
much to be desired.  Have I already mentioned that?  You can be
a star coach and still groan in disbelief as your driver gives up
a well-established inside line, lifts on corner exits, repeatedly
hits other cars, refuses to pass even when there's plenty of room...

The only thing you can really do is stack the deck heavily in his
favor so that even he can't mess it up.  Pointless and unsporting...
but it's not like A-Spec where you can enjoy handicapping yourself
with an inferior car or tires and see if you can still win - that
depends on the assumption that you actually get better by taking on
progressively more difficult challenges.  My Level 32 B-Spec driver
still stabs his throttle like a petulant 8-year-old unless I give him
an X2010 or Zonda R which can defeat any other car in its sleep.

Recently at Daytona I experienced too much soul-destroying WTF
when he gave up a 15-second lead and dropped back to 9th for no
apparent reason, and trust me I was riding the "pace up" button
incessantly, watching him replying "OK" and then losing two more
places.  Not too encouraging for me to try that again.


============================
Addendum 4 - battling the AI
============================

"Will You PLEASE Fix The Lift-Off Bug Already?!"

There's a great article on Cracked about how games these days might be
catering too much to people's lazy expectations - afraid people will
simply put down the game if it's too hard, game designers build them
for the lower end of the lowest common denominator (much like the way
speed limits are set).  And you know how much fun that is for people
who actually know what they are doing.

My biggest peeve of this is the lift-off bug, meaning if you get close
enough to a car in front of you and you both are anywhere near a corner,
he will lift off (and even downshift!) in order to make it easier to
pass.  Clearly the AI isn't unaware of your car's position, and one
quality of a skilled driver is knowing when to back off in corners so
that you both exit the corner on the tarmac.  Sometimes you have to
check up a little in order to set up your counterattack.

Except that the AI cars don't do that, exactly.  You come up right
behind them and you are counting on them to brake normally and then
exit the corner on full power, which they totally don't.  All your
brilliant effort in putting your car exactly the right distance
behind and then nailing the corner exit is spoiled as the other car
suddenly hurls itself into your nose.  After a while you learn to
anticipate this and if you contort your exit line enough, you just
might slip past them when they drop anchor. But it's pretty annoying
to look in your rear view and see that they not only let you by, but
brake tested the car behind you as well, as if they're suffering
the dreaded 5-second throttle penalty.  And as of the 2.0 version,
the AI is even easier to intimidate if you just invade their
"personal space" a little.  I actually got a double downshift
out of one car during the FormulaGT online race at Nurburgring 24h,
on a *corner exit*!

The overall lack of pace in the AI cars is the other area that needs
improvement.  Why do I have to start in 12th place on a single-file
rolling start in a car that is not even close to the same class as
the leader, just to make it somewhat challenging?  There's no way a
Ford Mark IV should be able to beat the Sauber C9 in a lap of the
Nurburgring 24h circuit, yet I've done it many times in GT5.
Interesting technical exercise, but this is supposed to be
"The Real Driving Simulator".

I totally understand that the AI is little more than following a script
of a predetermined driving line, but can't we have two AI modes (oh,
let's say "amateur" and "professional")?  Can't we get some drivers at
PDI to lay down some faster driving line scripts?  If professional
AI race decision-making is still years away, I'd at least like to put
my 787B against the Minolta without checking out by Aremberg.

Dear PDI, Please, please, PLEASE fix this.

======================================
Addendum 5 - suggested GT improvements
======================================

This is where I voice my suggestions (frustrations) for improving the
Gran Turismo experience for future releases (or better: near-future
updates).  If you agree with me, let your voice be heard wherever
you choose as your favorite forum, so PDI will (maybe) get the word.
Or even if you don't agree with my suggestions, speak up on yours.

1. AI - as I mentioned above in excruciating detail, the biggest minus
of GT5 is the AI, and it has a lot of room for improvement to make
it more challenging.  I'm bored of doing tedious "expert" challenges
where you race on rubber that has no business on a race track (or
at least on a particular car) because the only way the AI has a
chance at beating you is when you're engaged in a constant argument
with your tires.  I like that they've improved some aspects of
the AI's searching, but at the moment it's actually worse now
as far as competitiveness, and believe me, they still hit you even
when you've totally made a clean overtaking move.

2. Camera Angles - most of the cars have improved perspectives
for the interior (first-person) cameras, but they still don't
quite work if you're already using a driving wheel to play the game.
And personally I don't like the bouncy, blurry camera - your eyes
adjust to this when you're racing for real, so in GT5 it's weird.
I prefer the "hood" cam overall, but very few of the cars have
rendered this correctly as far as width, or height and depth of field.
Some of them are even inexplicably mounted on the roof instead of
the hood.  I know there is some variation of car dimensions, but
can't the hood view be somewhat consistent for all cars?  I want to
see nothing but nose and wheels when I'm driving a formula car.

3. Race Series - the really serious race categories (Formula,
Group C, Super GT, DTM, NASCAR, etc) are way too short.  As with
#3 above, the game needs to have the races expanded in general,
but these top tier series races in particular need to be much
more expansive.  A Le Mans race series would be nice also.
The new online FormulaGT races are only 10 laps, half the distance
they are in the main part of the game!

4. Sound - it's no secret that the sound quality of the various
car engines is GT5's enduring shortcoming, though many of them
have vastly improved from GT4 (more accurate, more aggressive,
more lifelike, louder).  Some just sound slightly too processed,
too friendly for the masses, others are just plain way off. More
than that, I wish there were more control over the sound levels
in the game - meaning separate volume controls for your car
(including separate sound levels for engine and exhaust note),
other cars, road noises, and of course music (for those that
still use it during races).

5. Car Tuning - GT5 still has some of the same limits for certain
crucial tuning aspects that control car handling - namely the LSD
(which is limited to 5-60 but should go 0-100), and the caster and
steering lock adjustments (which GT5 doesn't have, but should).
Tire pressure adjustment is another MUST ADD.

6. Real Circuits - two real circuits that would be nice to have in
GT would be Spa, and Road America.  Maybe even Watkins Glen.  And
bring back Motegi as well!

7. Porsche 911 GT3 RSR, Aston Martin DBR9 - these two cars simply
must be added to any future version of the game.  I can't believe
that GT5 has Aston Martins but not the awesome DBR9!!

8. Original Circuits - I'm not sure why a circuit like Eifel is only
available to race online, it's a beautiful track.  And why did they
take away the Seattle circuit?  I loved that track.  GT3 also had
another great Japan-based night circuit that was awesome, wish they
would bring that one back.

9. Time Change/Weather Change - Fully fixed in 2.0!! Just awesome,
you can now set the time or weather as well as its degree of change.
Just remember to bring a car that has headlights if you race at night,
I noticed it was pitch black when I tried it in my FormulaGT.

10. Replay Theater - Why do you lose the ability to view your replays
when you transfer your data to a new system?  I see that all of the
replays came over since I can load them in practice, so obviously
the Replay Theater just doesn't know where to find them.


===========================
Addendum 6 - lap milestones
===========================

Most people's advice is absolutely correct: that it takes about 100
laps just to consider oneself minimally familiar with the track.  But
refining from there can take exponentially more practice... In GT4
I eventually found that every 100-200 laps I did yielded another
half-second improvement.

This is all a-spec only, and of course I don't count any pesky late-nite
frustrating partial spin-and-bounce-off-Armco-screw-this-hit-restart laps
(even if I wipe out at Galgenkopf, or T13 for that matter).

Feel free to skip this section if you like, it's mainly for me (again
I don't claim to have the fastest times, these are just my personal bests).
I think I'm kinda slow for having done so many laps, but this is the main
track where I develop my skill and I'm still learning...

--------- GT4 --------------------------
Lap 3660: New record arcade - 4'40.824
Lap 3672: New record practice - 4'48.974
Lap 3767: Combined GT4/NFS Shift Nordschleife laps: 4000
Lap 3881: Latest GT4 lap count (NFS:S laps, 814; total 4695)
--------- GT4 --------------------------

--------- GT5 --------------------------
Lap    5: Gold (barely ;) in AMG Academy Intermediate: 7'04.998
Lap   11: Gold in AMG Academy Advanced (wet): 9'33.458
Lap   18: Personal best, GT-R (arcade, defaults) - 7'25.439 (trophy)
Lap   19: Zonda R with display corrected (arcade, default) - 6'23.651
Lap   24: Gold in AMG Academy Expert (wet): 8'22.332
Lap   50: Red Bull X1 S. Vettel (RH, stock): 3'43.222
Lap   52: Full 24h course, Red Bull X1 S. Vettel (RH, stock): 4'38.677
Lap   89: Formula Gran Turismo (Nordschleife only): 4'56.251
Lap  119: Combined Gran Turismo Nordschleife laps (GT4/GT5): 4000
Lap  305: Combined GT4/NFS:S/GT5 Nordschleife laps: 5000
Lap  500: Red Bull X1, 4-hr Nurburgring Type V best lap: 4'12.220
Lap  734: Finished 24-hr Nurburgring A-Spec (Gold Standard Trophy)
Lap  736: Ferrari F2007 shakedown Nordschleife: 4'59.0
Lap  738: Formula Gran Turismo (new) Nordschleife: 4'49.310
Lap  743: Red Bull X2010 Vettel Nordschleife: 3'21.318
Lap  757: Formula Gran Turismo Nordschleife: 4'44.599
Lap  885: Formula Gran Turismo Nordschleife: 4'43.466
Lap  890: AMG Academy Beginner, full lap: 8'37.882
Lap  896: GT40 '69 Nordschleife practice: 6'21.7
Lap 1003: Ferrari F2007 Nordschleife: 4'47.432
Lap 1103: Ford Mark IV Nordschleife: 6'08.601
Lap 1119: Combined Gran Turismo Nordschleife laps (GT4/GT5): 5000
Lap 1153: Mazda 787B, Nurburgring 24h: 7'00.630
Lap 1159: Mercedes CLK-LM '98, Nurburgring 24h: 7'16.410
Lap 1165: McLaren F1 GTR, Nurburgring 24h: 7'20.185
Lap 1252: Formula Gran Turismo Nordschleife: 4'43.165
Lap 1275: Formula GT Nurburgring 24h 2-lap online race: 11'57.998

==================================
Addendum 7 - real-life lap records
==================================

6'11.13 - Stefan Bellof's time stands to this day as the lap record
at the Nordschleife.  All of the top fastest times were set during
qualifying in the 1983 Sports Car Championships, the final year that
series ran on the Nordschleife, by drivers of the Porsche 956.  If you
have the Porsche 956 In-Car dvd, you are basically viewing the 5th
fastest lap at around 6'41, but as Derek Bell was Bellof's partner in
that race, the car he is driving was the car that set the world record.
As funny as it is when Bell refers to Jackie Ickx who passes him at
Aremberg on a "fast lap", he's still talking about a 25-second
difference in pace. Pretty cool to see some of the names in this
historic starting grid...

1. 6'11.13: Bellof/Bell Rothmans #2
2. 6'16.85: Ickx/Mass Rothmans #1
3. 6'31.59: Wollek/Johansson Joest
4. 6'39.52: Rosberg/Lammers Canon
5. 6'41.17: Patrese/Alboreto Lancia Martini
6. 6'42.1:  Fitzpatrick/Hobbes JDavid

===========================
How many corners are there?
===========================

"It's not REALLY a corner..."
--Sabine Schmitz

The Nordschleife has 117 corners, in my opinion - at least
that's how I see it now in GT5.

In GT5 there is naturally a greatly increased accuracy in the track, 
and I also was starting to get lost or confused while reading my own
guide, since some of the minor bends had been oversimplified or
disregarded. So I went around for a few back-and-forth recon laps
(with much practice of e-brake turns in my Formula GT) and I've added
ten to the corner count.

I still don't quite get how people ended up tallying 147, or 173.  I can
understand the low numbers I've heard (I caught myself second-guessing
often, "is this a corner", but found I had counted the same bends
before most of the time), but I do wonder how they got the high counts
even if you included the GP circuit.  It's easy to disregard a bend
if you are going slow enough, but even in an F1 car I don't see where
the numbers could have gone so high unless you start numbering by
some arbitrary angle size. 

I must mention also that sometimes it takes really looking at the
track (either in a slow car or merely by driving really slowly in a 
fast one) to appreciate the complexities of the layout and its subtle
rhythmic delights.  It's all too easy to miss it when you're always
going for the fastest lap time you can manage.  I certainly had many
"look how cool that is" moments while going more slowly (and sometimes
backwards) and really analyzing not only what counts as a real corner
or at least a bend, but also how they connect to one another in some
almost musical phrases, variations, and echoes.

==================
Thanks for reading
==================

Again, I hope this humble labor has helped or inspired you in some way.
Thank you for reading!


"The various methods cannot be expressed in writing... It is
difficult to express it clearly... You must practice constantly."
--Miyamoto Musashi, 1645

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